The Efficacy of BMP’s on E. coli Bacteria Levels in the Hoosic River

In 2014, a small privately-owned cattle farm on Walling Road in Adams, Massachusetts implemented several “best management practices” (BMPs) to address Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination of the Hoosic River. Research conducted by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), the Berkshire Regional Planning Commission (BRPC), and Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts (MCLA) identified this parcel as a significant source of bacterial contamination. The purpose of this study was to examine water quality samples obtained downstream of the farm and determine if the implementation of these BMPs were successful in reducing E. coli contamination of the Hoosic River. On September 13, 2017, eight water samples collected from four testing locations were subjected to the Colilert enzyme substrate test, along with a field blank and a lab blank for controls. Total coliform and E. coli bacterial load results were recorded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. It is hypothesized that E. coli levels would remain high at the source, despite BMP implementation. The data supported the hypothesis showing that the BMP’s implemented did not reduce E. coli levels at the source.

The Effects of Salinity on Freshwater Copepods

Calcium chloride, among other sources of nonpoint source pollution, can be detrimental to aquatic species in rivers and streams. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) enters waterways primarily through runoff from impervious surfaces such as roads and storm drains in the form of road deicer. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of salinity on freshwater copepod survival under laboratory conditions. Over a 7-day study period under lab conditions, 3 groups of copepods were exposed to 2 PSU (Practical Saline Units), 4 PSU and 6 PSU CaCl2 solutions. Survival rates were recorded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel running paired, one-tailed t-tests. It was hypothesized that as calcium chloride concentrations increased there would be a lower survival rate between days 1 and 3 when compared to days 3 through 7, relative to controls. Although the data did not support the hypothesis that survival rate would be lower within the first three days, increased salinity negatively affected survival rates in both time distributions.